Bibliography & Glossary (PDF) Class Outline The Candidate Application and Record of Previous Experience forms.

An overview of the program and certification options.

Despite seeming like a relatively stable place, the Earth's surface has changed dramatically over the past 4.6 billion years.

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A common problem with any dating method is that a sample may be contaminated with older or younger material and give a false age.

This problem is now reduced by the careful collection of samples, rigorous crosschecking and the use of newer techniques that can date minute samples.

The atoms of some chemical elements have different forms, called isotopes.

These break down over time in a process scientists call radioactive decay.

Archaeologists use many different techniques to determine the age of a particular artifact, site, or part of a site.

Two broad categories of dating or chronometric techniques that archaeologists use are called relative and absolute dating.

Each original isotope, called the parent, gradually decays to form a new isotope, called the daughter.

Each isotope is identified with what is called a ‘mass number’.

Geologists often need to know the age of material that they find.